Proceedings of the World Avocado Congress II - California - 1991


Opening Session


  1. Janus Looks at the World Avocado Industry
    J. Shepherd 

  2. An Ethnoecological Approach for the Study of Persea: A Case Study in the Maya Area
    L. Gama-Campillo and A. Gómez-Pompa

  3. Ripe Revolution
    K. Murphy and D. Khilstadius

  4. The Avocado in Human Nutrition. I. Some Human Health Aspects of the Avocado
    B.O. Bergh

  5. The Avocado in Human Nutrition. II. Avocados and Your Heart
    B.O. Bergh

  6. Archeology of the Avocado in Latin America
    E. Schieber and G.A. Zentmyer

  Phytophthora Root Rot and Other Avocado Diseases


  1. The Performance of Rootstocks Tolerant to Root Rot Caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Under Field Conditions in Southern California
    J.A. Menge, F.B. Guillemet, S. Campbell, E. Johnson, and E. Pond

  2. Persea and Phytophthora in Latin America
    G.A. Zentmyer and E. Schieber

  3. Assessments on the Resistance of Avocado Rootstocks to Phytophthora cinnamomi in Puerto Rico
    M. Ruiz-Rosado, L.J. Liu, F. Ferwerda, and A. Arocho

  4. Fosetyl-Al, A Management Tool for Control of Phytophthora Root Rot
    H.S. Young, B.L. Tepper, R.T. Mercer, G. Pelizzo, and R. Anelich

  5. Timing of Phosphonate Trunk Injections for Phytophthora Root Rot Control in Avocado Trees
    A.W. Whiley, J.B. Saranah, P.W. Langdon, P.A. Hargreaves, K.G. Pegg, and L.J. Ruddle

  6. Integrated Management of Phytophthora Root Rot of Avocado in Atlixco, Puebla, Mexico
    D. Téliz, A. Mora, C. Velazquez, R. Garcia, G. Mora, P. Rodríguez, J. Etchevers, S. Salazar, and P.M. Tsao

  7. Susceptibility to Phytophthora citricola of Certain Avocado Rootstock Cultivars Known to be Tolerant to P. cinnamomi
    P.M. Tsao, A. Alizadeh, E. Krausman, J.G. Fang, J.A. Menge, and F.B. Guillemet

  8. Evaluation of Field Trees for Resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi by Means of the Detached Root Technique
    M. De V. van der Merwe, E.M.C. Maas, and J.M. Kotzé

  9. An Improved Method to Evaluate Avocado Rootstocks for Resistance to Phytophthora cinnamomi
    M. De V. van der Merwe

  10. Update of Canary Islands Research on West Indian Avocado Rootstock Tolerance/Resistance to Phytophthora Root Rot
    L. Gallo-Llobet

  11. Effects of Flooding and Phytophthora Root Rot on Net Gas Exchange of Avocado in Dade County, Florida
    R. C. Ploetz and B. Schaffer

  12. Diseases of Avocado Caused by Soil Fungi in the Southern Mediterranean Coast of Spain
    C.J. López-Herrera and J.M. Malero-Vara

  13. Evaluation of Phytophthora Root Rot-Suppressive Soils From California Avocado Groves
    M. K. Rahimian and W. L. Casale

  14. Sphaeropsis Tumor of Avocado
    L. Fucikovsky

  15. A Unique Trunk Canker of Avocado in Guatemala Caused by Phytophthora heveae
    G.A. Zentmyer, W. Popenoe, and E. Schieber

  16. Elucidation of Resistant Response to Phytophthora Root Rot-Induced in A Susceptible Avocado Rootstock
    Y. Pinkas, M. Zilberstaine, and J. Hershenhorn

  17. Integrated Control of Phytophthora Root Rot in California
    M.D. Coffey

  18. In VitroScreening of Tolerance to Phytophthora cinnamomi in Avocado Rootstocks
    T. Botha, F.C. Wehner, and J.M. Kotzé

  19. Biological Control of Phytophthora Root Rot Using Strain TW of Myrothecium roridum
    M.D. Coffey and R. Gees

  20. Use of Worm-Composted Sludge as a Soil Amendment for Avocados Replanted in Phytophthora-\nfested Soil
    G.S. Bender, W.L Casale, and M. Rahimian

  21. Phytophthora citricola and its Control
    M.D. Coffey

  22. Morphology of the Avocado Phylloplane as Related to Microbial Colonization
    L. Korsten, G.M. Sanders, and J.M. Kotze

 Horticulture and Plant Physiology

  1. Inherent Influence of Rootstock Race on Avocado Fruit Maturity
    P.J. Young

  2. Effect of Time of Harvest on Fruit Size, Yield and Trunk Starch Concentrations of 'Fuerte' Avocados
    A.W. Whiley, J.B. Saranah, and T.S. Rasmussen

  3. Requirements for Improved Fruiting Efficiency in the Avocado Tree
    B.N. Wolstenholme and A.W. Whiley

  4. Pollination Habit of Avocado Cultivars in South Florida
    T.L. Davenport

  5. Boron: Uptake by Avocado Leaves and Influence on Fruit Production
    P.J. Robbertse, LA. Coetzer, and F. Bessinger

  6. Photosynthesis of Avocado Fruit
    M.M. Blanke

  7. Properties of Persea indica, an Ornamental for Southern California
    U.K. Schuch, R.W. Scora, E.A. Nothnagel and S.D. Campbell

  8. Original Technique for Liquid Injection in Tree Trunks
    A. Sahagún de la Parr a and J. Sahagún-Calderon

  9. Avocado Research at South Coast Research and Extension Center
    R.F. Bevacqua

  10. 'Hass' Avocado Response to Salinity as Influenced by Clonal Rootstocks
    J.D. Oster and M.L Arpaia

  11. Shoot and Root Growth Phenology of Grafted Avocado
    R.C. Ploetz, J.L. Ramos, and J.L. Parrado

  12. Potassium Uptake by Avocado Roots
    M. Zilberstaine, A. Eshel, and Y. Waisel

  13. Effect of Paclobutrazol Bloom Sprays on Fruit Yield and Quality of cv. Hass Avocado Growing in Subtropical Climates
    A.W. Whiley, J.B. Saranah, and B.N. Wolstenholme

  14. Yield Advantages and Control of Vegetative Growth in a High Density Avocado Orchard Treated with Paclobutrazol
    J. S. Köhne and S. Kremer-Köhne

  15. Shoot Growth and Tree Architecture in a Range of Avocado Cultivars
    T. G. Thorp and M. Sedgley

  16. Pollination of the 'Hass' Avocado Cultivars
    /. Guil and S. Gazit

  17. Increasing 'Hass' Fruit Size
    J.S. Köhne

  18. Use of the ADC LCA 3 in Avocado Fruit Physiology
    M.M. Blanke and ADC

  19. A Definitive Test to Determine Whether Phosphite Fertilization can Replace Phosphate Fertilization to Supply P in the Metabolism of 'Hass' on Duke 7. - A Preliminary Report.
    C.J. Lovatt

 Pests and Their Management

  1. The Role of Exotic Natural Enemies in the Biological Control of Insect and Mite Pests of Avocado in California
    J.A. McMurtry

  2. Parasitoids of the Heart-Shaped (Pyriform) Scale. Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Cockerel!) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) on Avocados in South Africa
    W.J. Du Toit, M.S. Schutte and W.P. Steyn

  3. A Study of How Time and Greenhouse Thrips (Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis Boucha) Populations Affect Quality of 'Hass' Avocado
    J. Schnackenberg and R.J. McNeil

  4. Integrated Pest Management of Insects and Mite Pests on California Avocados
    J.B. Bailey and K.N. Olsen

  5. Two Monitoring Techniques for Insect Pests of Avocados
    J.B. Bailey

  6. IPM System in Avocado Plantations in Israel
    M. Wysoki, E. Swirski, and Y. Izhar

  7. The Resistance by Encapsulation of the Pyriform Scale Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Cockerell) to Successful Parasitization by the Encrytid Parasitoid Metaphycus Stanleyi Compere
    D. Blumberg

  8. Damage Caused by Avocado Branch Weevil (Copturus aguacate Kiss.) in 'Fuerte' Avocado Trees in Atlixco, Puebla, Mexico
    S. Salazar-García and J.M. Bolio-García

  9. Distribution and Incidence of Scab (Sphaceloma persea) in Avocado (Persea americana) and its Relation to Thrips in the 'Hass' Cultivar in the State of Michoacan, Mexico
    J.A. Vidales F. and J.L. Morales García

 Cultural and Nursery Practices

  1. Close Planting of Avocado
    B. Razeto, J. Longueira, and T. Fichet

  2. Irrigation and Fertilization Management of Avocados
    J.L. Meyer, M.V. Yates, D.E. Stottlemyer, E. Takele, M.L. Arpaia, G.S. Bender, and G. W. Witney

  3. Optimal Leaf Analysis Norms for Avocado (cv. Fuerte)
    T.J. Koen and S.F. du Plessis

  4. Field Evaluation of 'Hass' Avocado Grown on Duke 7, G6 and G755C Rootstocks
    J.S. Köhne

  5. Avocado Clonal Rootstock Trial
    M.L. Arpaia, G.S. Bender, and G.W. Witney

  6. Planting Time and Sunlight Protection of Avocado Maiden Trees in Orchard Installation
    O. C. Koller, A.H.D. Francisconi, S.S. Amaro, and F.A. Belotto

  7. The Response of Avocado Tree in the South of Spain to Different Irrigation Regimes and Wetted Areas
    L. Olalla, A. Salazar, A. Mira, M. Martín, F. Jurado, and C. López.

  8. Water Requirements and the Effect of Salinity in an Avocado Orchard on Clay Soil
    E. Lahav, R. Steinhardt, and D. Kalmar

  9. Irrigation and Fertilizer Management Minimize Nitrate Leaching in Avocado Production
    M.V. Yates, D.E. Stottlemyer, J.L. Meyer, and M.L. Arpaia

  10. The Effectiveness of Foliar Potassium Nitrate Sprays on the 'Hass' Avocado (Persea americana Mill.)
    J.L. Sing and R.J. McNeil

  11. Boron Fertilization of 'Sharwil' Avocados in Kona, Hawaii
    S.C. Miyasaka, T.G. McDonald, D.T. Matsuyama, E. A. Graser, and I.S. Campbell

  12. Water Conservation Strategies for California Avocado Groves
    G.W. Witney and G.S. Bender

  13. Water Rate Effects on Three Avocado Cultivars
    C. Kurtz, I. Guil, and I. Klein

  14. Avocado Topworking Update 1990
    G.E. Martin and B.O. Bergh

  15. Reducing Chloride Toxicity in Avocado by Nitrate
    Y. Bar, U. Kafkafi, and E. Lahav

  16. On-Going Research Testing the Efficacy of Using Urea to Increase Flowering, Fruit Set, and Yield in Avocado
    C.J. Lovatt, H.D. Ohr, B. Needham, C.A. Hanson, S.L. Purcell, S. Spangler, and G. W. Witney

  17. Some Aspects Affecting Graft-Take in Avocados
    C. Bruce McKenzie, B.N. Wolstenholme, and P. Allan

  18. Beauty and the Blade: Commercial Field Propagation Tools Useful for Avocado
    G.E. Martin and A. V. Lypps



Postharvest Physiology and Handling


  1. Physiological Maturity and Percent Dry Matter of California Avocado
    C.A. Ranney, G. Gillete, A. Brydon, S. McIntyre, O. Rivers, C.A. Vasquez, and E. Wilson

  2. Maturity Effects on Avocado Postharvest Physiology in Fruit Produced under Cool Environmental Conditions
    J.G.M. Cutting and B.N. Wolstenholme

  3. Relationship between Mineral Nutrition and Postharvest Fruit Disorders of 'Fuerte' Avocados
    S.F. du Plessis and T.J. Koen

  4. The Effect of Vegetative Pruning on Fruit Mineral Composition and Postharvest Quality in 'Hass' Avocado
    J.G.M. Cutting and J.P. Bower

  5. Inactivation in situ of Polyphenol Oxidase in Ripe Avocado Fruit
    A. Trejo-Gonzalez, R. Munguia-Mazariegos, and M. Cantwell

  6. Ultrastructure of Avocados: Ripening, Chilling Injury, and Isolation of Idioblast Oil Cells
    K.A. Platt-Aloia and W.W. Thomson

  7. Temperature Management - The Basis for Successful Export of South African 'Fuerte' Avocados
    J.J. Bezuidenhout, L.L Vorster, and J.C. Toerien

  8. The Influence of Harvest Maturity, Type of Packing and Temperatures on Avocado Quality
    L.A. Lizana, M. Salas, and H. Berger

  9. Ultrastructure and Cytology of the Postharvest Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) Fruit
    J.G. Luza and L.A. Lizana.

  10. Contribution of Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase to the Carbon Economy of cv. Fuerte Avocado Fruit - Categorization of Photosynthesis and Effects of Simulated Salinity, CCfc Shock and CA-Storage
    B.A. Notton and M.M. Blanke

  11. Effect of Atmosphere Modification on Internal Physiological Browning of 'Fuerte' Avocados
    A.B. Truter, F.J. Calitz, J.G.M. Cutting, and J.P. Bower

  12. Long-Distance Controlled Atmosphere Transport of Avocados
    G.J. Eksteen, A.B. Truter, and L.L Vorster

  13. Response of 'Hass' Avocado to Postharvest Storage in Controlled Atmosphere Conditions
    D.F. Faubion, F.G. Mitchell, G. Mayer, and M.L. Arpaia

  14. Postharvest Biological Control of Avocado Postharvest Diseases
    L. Korsten and J.M. Kotzé

  15. Regulation of Natural Resistance of Avocado Fruit for the Control of Postharvest Disease
    D. Prusky, I. Kobiler, R. Plumbley, N. T. Keen, and J.J. Sims

  16. Response to Avocado Pericarp Tissue to Mechanical Injury
    C.A. Schroeder

  17. Avocado Fruit Maturation and Criteria for Harvest
    A. Blumenfeld, R. Offer, M. Elimelech, C. Degani, and R. El Bazri

  18. Cellulase Localization and Membrane Changes During Ripening in Avocado Fruit
    T.F. Dallman, W.W. Thomson, E.A. Nothnagel, and I.L. Eaks

  19. Predicting Fruit Quality After Storage, Is it Possible and Practical with our Current Knowledge?
    J.G.M. Cutting

  20. Accumulation of Fluorescent Lipid-Peroxidation Products During Ripening of 'Fuerte' Avocado Fruit
    S. Meir, S. Philosoph-Hadas, G. Zauberman, Y. Fuchs, M. Akerman, and N. Aharoni

  21. Effect of Fruit Development and Ecological Growing Conditions on Oil Composition of Persea americana Fruit Mesocarp
    Y.F. Lozano and E.M. Gaydou

  22. Effect of Conditioning Temperatures, Intermittent Warming and High CO2 on Ripening and Chilling Injury Control in 'Hass' Avocado
    C. Saucedo-Veloz, J.M. Martinez-Javega, and M. Mateos-Otero

  23. The Relationship of Flesh Softening to the Respiratory Climacteric, Ethylene Production and Ammonia Accumulation in Avocado
    M.L. Arpaia, C.J. Lovatt, F.G. Mitchell, and G. Mayer

  24. The Relationship of Flowering Time to Harvest Time
    J. de la Luz Sanchez P. and P. Palomares A.

  25. Preharvest Biological Control of Avocado Postharvest Diseases
    L. Korsten and J.M. Kotzé

 Germplasm and Breeding


  1. The Avocado Breeding and Selection Program at CICTAMEX
    S. Sánchez-Colin and E. de la Cruz Torres

  2. Origin and Taxonomic Relationships within the Genus Persea
    R. W. Scora and B. O. Bergh

  3. Selection of Avocado Dwarfing Rootstocks
    A.F. Barrientos-Priego, S. Sánchez-Colin, J.J. Aguilar-Melchor, and A. López-Jimenez

  4. Selection of Clonal Avocado Rootstocks in Israel for High Productivity under Different Soil Conditions
    A. Ben-Ya'acov, E. Michelson, M. Zilberstaine, Z. Barkan, and I. Sela

  5. Selection of Dwarf Avocado Trees Within a Population of Seedlings of cv. Colin V-33
    S. Sánchez-Colin, M. Rubí Arriaga, and E. de la Cruz Torres

  6. The Necessity of Avocado Germplasm Resources
    K.D. Bowman and R. W. Scora

  7. A Study of Avocado Germplasm Resources, 1988-1990. I. General Description of the International Project and its Findings
    A. Ben-Ya'acov, G. Bufler, A. Barrientos-Priego, E. de La Cruz Torres, and L. López-López

  8. A Study of Avocado Germplasm Resources, 1988-1990. II. Findings from the Central Part of Mexico
    A. Ben-Ya'Acov, L. López-López, E. De La Cruz-Torres, and A.F. Barrientos Priego.

  9. A Study of Avocado Germplasm Resources, 1988-1990. III. Ribosomal DNA Repeat Unit Polymorphism in Avocado
    G. Bufler and A. Ben-Ya'acov

  10. Study of Avocado Germplasm Resources, 1988-1990. IV. Findings in the Mexican Gulf Region
    A.F. Barrientos Priego, M.W. Borys, E. Escamilla-Prado, A.D. Ben-Ya'acov, E. de la Cruz-Torres, and L. López-López

  11. A Study of the Avocado Germplasm Resources, 1988-1990. V. The Evaluation of the Collected Material for Horticultural Purposes
    A. Ben-Ya'acov, M. Zilberstaine, and I. Sela

  12. Ancestors of the Guatemalan "Criollo" (Persea americana var. guatemalensis) as Studied in the Guatemalan Highlands
    E. Schieber and G. Zentmyer

  13. Avocado Breeding in Israel
    E. Lahav, U. Lavi, C. Degani, and S. Gazit

  14. Avocado Breeding Experiences and Prospects
    B.O. Bergh and G.E. Martin

  15. Evaluation of New Avocado Cultivars
    A. Blumenfeld, M. Elimelech, and M. Goren

  16. Evaluation of Germplasm From Guatemala for Resistance to Phytophthora (1982-1990)
    M.D. Coffey and E. Schieber

  17. The Development of Molecular Markers in Avocado
    M. T. Clegg, D. Henderson, and M. Durbin

  18. Effect of IBA, Kinetin, and Benzylaminopurine on the Germination, Shoot Development and Root Formation in Avocado Embryos Cultivated in vitro
    H. González-Rosas, B.E. Llano-Agudelo, and S. Salazar-García

  19. A Genetic Basis for Avocado Decline in the Rancho California Area of California
    N.C. Ellstrand, J.M. Clegg, M.L Arpaia, and G.W. Witney

  20. Preliminary Results on in vitro Selection for Tolerance to Chloride Excess in Avocado
    H. González-Rosas, G. Ramirez-Reyes, J.L. Rodriguez-Ontiveros, and S. Salazar-Garcia

Economic, Marketing and Commercial Trends

  1. Irrigation and Fertilization Management of Avocados: Economic Analysis Progress Report
    E. Takele, J.L. Meyer, D.E. Stottlemyer, M.V. Yates, M.L. Arpaia, G.S. Bender, and G. W. Witney

  2. The Structure of the Spanish Domestic Market for Avocados: Comments from a Consumer Survey
    J. Calatrava

  3. Returns to Scale of the Spanish Avocado Industry: The Dynamics of the Productive Structures
    J. Calatrava and F. Giardin

  4. Estimating California Avocado Production
    A. Crane

  5. New Variety Introduction Under U.S. Conditions
    W. Currier

  6. Production and Demand for Chilean Avocados: Domestic and Export Markets
    N. Sepúlveda and L.A. Lizana

The Global Avocado Market: Marketing Approaches and Perspectives

  1. Introduction to the Section
    M. Affleck

  2. World Avocado Market: A Brief Review
    M. Affleck

  3. The Current State of the Israeli Avocado Industry
    /. Shoham

  4. Review of the Mexican Avocado Industry in 1991
    C. Illsley

  5. The Chilean Avocado Industry
    R. Barros and L. Sanchez

  6. The United States Avocado Market
    M. Affleck

  7. The Update of the Spanish Avocado Industry
    J. Diaz-Robledo

  8. An Overview of the South African Avocado Industry
    J.C. Toerien, R.M. van Zyl, and F.J. Lourens

 Closing Session

  1. Janus Looks Again
    J. Shepherd



  1. "Will Processed Products Overtake the Fresh Market as the Major Profit Maker?"
    A.J. Vangelos and S. Barnhard

  2. "Is a Pollinator Required to Maximize Avocado Production?"
    T.L. Davenport and E. Lahav

  3. "Phytophthora Root Rot Management and Trunk Injection: History and Methodologies"
    H.D. Ohr and A.W. Whiley

  4. "Tree Spacing or Tree Thinning - Which is best?"
    J.S. Kohne and G.W. Witney

  5. "So You Have Root Rot Under Control, is Black Streak, Bacterial Canker, or Some Other Disease Reducing Yield? How are these Diseases Managed in the Various Avocado-Growing Countries?"
    R.C. Ploetz and L Korsten

  6. World Avocado Society Planning Session
    M. Browne and J. Toerien