South African Avocado Growers’ Association Yearbook 1987 – Volume 10


Proceedings of the First World Avocado Congress




  1. Editorial

  2. Acknowledgements 

  3. Golden Avocado Award 

  4. Preface 
    JC Toerien

  5. Speakers & Secretariat 

  6. Opening Address 
    CF Garbers

  7. Some aspects of avocado research world-wide (keynote address)
    BN Wolstenholme 


  1. Early history of the avocado during the time of the Conquistadores 
    GA Zentmyer, E Schieber and W Popenoe 

  2. Mapping of areas climatically suited to the production of avocado under irrigation in the eastern Transvaal 
    NB Human and JM de Jager 

  3. Root distribution of avocado trees in different soil types
    BJ Durand and NJF Claassens 


  1. Exploring for sources of resistance among Persea americana variety Guatemalensis and Persea schiedeana in middle America
    E Schieber and GA Zentmyer 

  2. Avocado breeding in California
    BO Bergh 

  3. Avocado production and breeding in Mexico
    S Sanchez Colin and A Barrientos Priego 

  4. Avocados in Spain
    JM Farre and F Pleigo 

  5. The Australian avocado industry
    AW Whiley 

  6. Avocado rootstock-scion relationships
    A Ben-Ya'acov 

  7. Physiological gradients in fleshy pericarp of avocado
    CA Schroeder 

  8. Field experiences with clonal rootstocks
    WH Brokaw 

  9. Propagation of avocado rootstocks by tissue culture
    F Pliego-Alfaro, CL Encina and A Barcelo-Munoz 

  10. Callus development - a possible aid in rooting avocado cuttings
    AA Ernst and LC Holtzhausen 


  1. Flowering, pollination and fruit-set of avocado
    M Sedgley 

  2. Pollination biology of Persea americana Fuerte
    LA Coetzer and PJ Robbertse 

  3. Effect of temperature at flowering on varietal productivity in some avocado-growing areas in Australia
    AW Whiley and EC Winston 


  1. Nitrate nutrition as a tool to reduce chloride toxicity in avocado
    Y Bar, U Kafkafi and E Lahav 

  2. Comparison of different calcium sources on avocado production
    SF du Plessis and TJ Koen 

  3. Demonstration of ammonia accumulation and toxicity in avocado leaves during water-deficit stress
    June M Nevin and Carol J Lovatt 

  4. A comparison of irrigation scheduling by tensiometer versus evaporation pan
    MJ Slabbert 

  5. Seasonal changes in nitrogen concentration in avocado leaves associated with leaf age and fertilisation regime
    Y Bar, E Lahav and D Kalmar 


  1. Theoretical and applied aspects of avocado yield as affected by energy budgets and carbon partitioning
    BN Wolstenolme 

  2. Effect of cv Colin V-33 as interstock on avocado (Persea americana Mill) growth, cv Fuerte
    A Barrientos Priego, A Lopez Jimenez and S Sanchez Colin 

  3. Vegetative growth and fruit retention in avocado as affected by a new plant growth regulator (Paclobutrazol)
    JS Kohne and Sylvie Kremer-Kohne

  4. Stomatal density and its relationship to growth habit in avocado
    A Barrientos Priego and S Sanchez Colin


  1. Mounding benefits replanting avocado root rot orchards
    GE Goodall, HD Ohr and GA Zentmyer 

  2. Herbicide use for weed control in avocado culture
    LS Jordan and CM Jordan 

  3. Effects of pre-bloom pruning on leaf nutrient status, growth and cropping of the avocado cv Hass
    JM Farre, JM Hermoso and F Pliego 


  1. Development of an IPM programme for Californian avocados
    JB Bailey, GE Goodall, LM McDonough and KN Olsen 

  2. Avocado insects of South Africa
    EA De Villiers and MA van den Berg 

  3. Integrated pest management considerations for greenhouse thrips control in coastal avocado orchards 
    GE Goodall, JB Bailey, PA Phillips and RS Bekey 


  1. Present status of Brazilian avocado industry 
    LC Donadio 

  2. The relationship between producer price and cost for the Spanish avocado as a parameter to forecast future supplies 
    J Calatrava, J Garcia, L Delgado and E Alcala-Zamora 

  3. United States' avocado production 
    Mary Lu Arpaia 


  1. Root rot in South Africa: past, present and future
    JM Kotze, JN Moll and JM Darvas 

  2. Control of Phytophthora root rot of avocados by trunk injection
    JM Darvas and JJ Bezuidenhout 

  3. Phytophthora control in Australia
    KG Pegg and AW Whiley 

  4. Injectable formulations of phosetyl-Al developed for root rot control in avocado trees in South Africa
    R Wood, IC Bennett and PA Blanken 

  5. The use of phosetyl-Al against Phytophthora root rot in avocados
    RK Hanrahan and J Paviot 

  6. The dynamics and distribution of phosphite in avocado trees treated with phosetyl-Al
    JJ Bezuidenhout, JM Darvas and JM Kotze 

  7. Leaf mineral nutrient concentrations and yield in Phytophthora root rot affected avocado trees treated with phosphate-phosphorus compounds
    AW Whiley and KG Pegg 

  8. Chemical control of Phytophthora cinnamomi
    JJ Bezuidenhout, JM Darvas and JM Kotze 

  9. The search for resistance to Phytophthora root rot in Latin America
    GA Zentmyer and E Schieber 

  10. Soil-borne avocado diseases of economic importance in Mexico
    I Luna and L Fucikovsky 


  1. Occurrence and control of avocado sooty blotch
    Elize M Smith, JM Kotze and FC Wehner 

  2. Epidemiology of anthracnose disease of avocados
    RD Fitzell 

  3. Avocado fruit diseases and their control in South Africa
    JM Darvas and JM Kotze 

  4. Avocado fruit diseases and their control in Mexico
    L Fucikovsky and I Luna 


  1. Monoclonal antibodies against bacterial canker of avocado
    Lise Korsten, Laura V Smith, JA Verschoor and JM Kotze 

  2. A lethal, transmissible stem-pitting of avocados associated with Duke 6 rootstocks
    JN Moll, NM Grech and SP van Vuuren 

  3. Blackstreak disease of avocado in California
    H D Ohr and Margaret K Murphy 

  4. Viruses, viroids and diseases of unknown etiology observed in avocado groves in Israel
    M Bar-Joseph, M Giband and V Yesodi 

  5. Monitoring avocado sunblotch disease in South Africa
    Lise Korsten, M Bar-Joseph and JM Kotze 


  1. Effect of harvest date and applied abscisic acid on browning potential of avocado fruit
    JGM Cutting and JP Bower 

  2. Physiological aspects of delayed marketing of avocado fruit
    Y Fuchs and G Zauberman 

  3. The involvement of polyphenol oxidase, abscisic acid and gibberellins in the expression of mesocarp discolouration in Fuerte avocado fruit
    PJ Hofman and BM Husband 

  4. Seasonal changes on chemical and physical parameters in 6 avocado (Persea americana Mill) cultivars grown in Chile
    P Undurraga, J Olaeta and F Gardiazabal 

  5. Localisation of polyphenol oxidase activity in avocado fruit
    AHP Engelbrecht 

  6. Some factors affecting post-harvest quality in avocado fruit
    JP Bower and JGM Cutting 


  1. A storage temperature regime for South African export avocados
    LL Vorster, JC Toerien and JJ Bezuidenhout 

  2. Susceptibility of avocado fruit to mechanical damage as influenced by variety, maturity and stage of ripeness
    Mary Lu Arpaia, FG Mitchell, PM Katz and G Mayer 

  3. Controlled and modified amospheres to extend storage life of avocados
    AB Truter and GJ Eksteen 

  4. Long-distance transport of avocados
    T Boelema 

  5. Storage and transport of avocados - practical considerations for the South African export situation
    GJ Eksteen and JM Bester 

  6. Oil as a byproduct of the avocado
    TP Human 

  7. Effect of cultivar and maturity on the quality of frozen avocado pulp
    JA Olaeta and M Rojas 


  1. The European market: short- (1990) and long-term (1995-2000) forecasts
    J Calatrava 

  2. Methodology for the analysis of low-consumption markets with a view to promotion: Application to avocados in Spain
    J Calatrava, C Garcia, M Cruz and MC Gonzalez