All about bees and Pollination Handbook - Carl Hayden Bee Research Center 

Avocado flowering.  Davenport, T. L. 1986.  In: J. Janick (ed.) Horticultural Reviews. Volume 8:257-289.

Avocado Pollination Basics  Gad Ish-Am (Presentation in English).

Dual Cycle of Avocado Flowers - by Peter A. Peterson. In California Agriculture. 1955. 9(10):6-7, 13.

Entomological Society of America

Nociones Básicas sobre La Polinización del Aguacatero (Palto)  Gad Ish-Am (Presentación en Español).

Pollination - Lecture 21- Pollination - University of Maryland

Pollination Homepage - www.pollinator.com

Some aspects of pollination and fertilization in subtropical fruit by Schroeder and Hofshi, Subtropical Fruit News.

The Pollination of Avocados - A.B. Stout.  1933.  University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin 257.


Bees and Pollination - Ohio State University

BeeSource - Online sourcebook for beekeepers

Conserving wild bees for crop pollination - by Dave Goulson. Food, Agriculture & Environment Vol.1(1): 142-144. 2003.

Crop pollination from native bees at risk from agricultural intensification - Claire Kremen, Neal M. Williams, and Robbin W. Thorp. 2002.

Effect of Honey Bee (Apis mellifera L.) Density on Pollination and Fruit Set of Avocado (Persea americana Mill.) CV. Hass - by Juan F. Peña and Arturo Carabalí

Evaluating Honeybee Colonies for Pollination - A guide for growers and beekeepers - from Oregon State

Honey bee (Apis mellifera) strains differ in avocado - by Arnon Dag, A. Elizabeth Fetscher, Ohad Afik, Yelena Yeselson, Arthur
Schaffer, Yossi Kamer, Nicholas M. Waser, Monica A. Madore, Mary Lu Arpaia, Reuben Hofshi, and Sharoni Shafir.

How To Attract More Bees To Your Garden

Low attractiveness of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) flowers to honeybees (Apis mellifera L.) limits fruit set in Israel - G. Ish-Am and D. Eisikowitch. Journal of Horticultural Sciences & Biotechnology (1998), 73 (2):195-204 posted with permission from Gad Ish-Am

Mobility of honey bees (Apidae, Apis mellifera L) during foraging in avocado orchards - G Ish-Am, D Eisikowitch. Apidologie 29 (1998):209-219 posted with permission from Gad Ish-Am

Ontario Beekeepers Association - Useful site for beekeepers

Review on Honeybee: Miracle Agent of Pollination - Tamana Chauhan, Shimpy Sarkar and Arshdeep Singh. 2021

Stingless Bees Can Serve as Efficient Avocado Pollinators - S. Gazit and G. Ish-Am.  (Paper, Poster)

The behaviour of honeybees (Apis mellifera) visiting avocado (Persea americana) flowers and their contribution to its pollination - Gad Ish-Am and Dan Eisikowitch. 1993. Journal of Apicultural Research, 32 (3-4):175-186. posted with permission from Gad Ish-Am

The Guide to Beekeeping for Adults and Kids (PDF)

USDA Bee Biology and Systematics Laboratory Logan, Utah

Why Enhancement of Floral Resources in Agro-Ecosystems Benefit Honeybees and Beekeepers? - Decourtye Axel, Alaux Cédric, Odoux Jean-François, Henry Mickaël, Vaissière Bernard E. and Le Conte Yves. 2011


Breeding flies to lift pollination rates  Australian Tree Crop. Apr/May 2022.

Flies are Pollinators! - by Kathy Keatley Garvey. University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources. October 8, 2015. 

How Much Do Flies Help With Pollination? - by Stephanie Pain, Knowable. Smithsonian Magazine. March 8, 2021. 

The Role of Flies as Pollinators of Horticultural Crops: An Australian Case Study with Worldwide Relevance - by David F Cook, Sasha C Voss, Jonathan T D Finch, Romina C Rader, James M Cook, and Cameron J Spurr. Insects. 2020 Jun; 11(6): 341.